Ventral penile curvature, a bend in the penis towards the underside, can be a cause of concern for men. In some cases, the curvature may be mild and not cause any problems. However, for others, it can be severe enough to interfere with sexual intercourse and lead to psychological distress.

This introduction sets the stage for discussing surgical repair options for ventral penile curvature. It acknowledges that non-surgical treatments may be an option in some cases, but focuses on surgery as the topic of the following text.

Indications & Contraindications of Surgical Management

Surgical repair can be a viable option for men seeking to correct ventral penile curvature, but it’s not always the right course of action. Here’s a breakdown of the factors that influence this decision:

Indications for Surgery:

  • Degree of Curvature: If the curvature is severe enough to cause pain, difficulty with penetration during intercourse, or psychological distress, surgery may be recommended.
  • Ineffectiveness of Non-Surgical Treatments: If conservative options like oral medications or traction devices haven’t yielded satisfactory results, surgery becomes a more likely consideration.
  • Patient’s Desire: Ultimately, the patient’s desire for a more functional and aesthetically pleasing penis plays a significant role. If curvature correction is a priority, and the patient understands the risks and potential benefits, surgery may be pursued.

Contraindications for Surgery:

  • Mild Curvature: If the curvature is mild and doesn’t cause functional or psychological problems, then surgery is generally not recommended due to the inherent risks involved.
  • Unrealistic Expectations: It’s crucial for patients to have realistic expectations about the outcome of surgery. While significant improvement is often achievable, achieving a perfectly straight penis may not always be possible.
  • Certain Medical Conditions: Pre-existing medical conditions that could complicate healing or increase surgical risks, such as uncontrolled diabetes or severe bleeding disorders, may preclude surgery.
  • Psychological Concerns: Underlying psychological issues related to body image or sexual performance should be addressed before surgery, as surgery itself may not resolve these concerns.

It’s important to note that this is a general overview. Consulting a qualified urologist is essential to determine the best course of treatment for each individual case. They will consider the severity of the curvature, the patient’s medical history, and their individual goals to determine if surgery is the right approach.

Special anatomy Consideration

The penis, while seemingly simple in structure, possesses unique anatomical features that surgeons must consider during ventral curvature repair. Here’s a breakdown of some key anatomical aspects:

  • Corpus Cavernosa: These paired erectile bodies run along the dorsum (upper side) of the penis and are responsible for rigidity during erection. In ventral curvature, one corpus cavernosum may be shorter or have a tighter fibrous sheath, causing the penis to bend downwards.
  • Tunica Albuginea: This tough, fibrous tissue encases the corpus cavernosa and helps maintain their shape during erection. Ventral curvature surgery may involve strategically weakening or incising specific portions of the tunica albuginea on the convex (opposite) side of the bend to allow for straightening.
  • Urethra: This tube carries urine from the bladder to the tip of the penis. During surgery, meticulous care is taken to avoid damaging the urethra, which could lead to complications like urinary leakage.
  • Dorsal Neurovascular Bundle: This bundle of nerves and blood vessels runs along the dorsal aspect of the penis. Preserving this structure is crucial to maintain penile sensation and blood flow, both essential for normal erectile function and sexual satisfaction.
  • Skin: The penile skin is highly elastic and needs to be carefully mobilized and redistributed during surgery to achieve a natural appearance after straightening the penis.

Understanding these anatomical features allows surgeons to choose the most appropriate surgical technique for each patient. Different procedures address the curvature by focusing on either the tunica albuginea (plication techniques) or the corpus cavernosum itself (grafting procedures). The specific technique chosen depends on the cause and severity of the curvature, as well as the surgeon’s expertise.

By carefully considering these anatomical aspects, surgeons can strive to achieve optimal outcomes in ventral curvature repair, focusing on straightening the penis while minimizing risks to surrounding structures and preserving erectile function.

Patient Position and Special Instruments

Patient Positioning:

For ventral penile curvature repair surgery, the patient is typically positioned in a supine (lying on back) position with legs spread comfortably apart. This allows for unobstructed access to the penis and surrounding structures. In some cases, depending on the surgical technique, stirrups may be used to support the legs and provide better visualization.

Special Instruments:

Surgeons utilize a variety of specialized instruments during ventral curvature repair to ensure precision and minimize tissue damage. Here are some key examples:

  • Microsurgical instruments: These delicate tools allow for meticulous dissection and suture placement, minimizing blood vessel and nerve injury.
  • Doppler ultrasound: This technology helps surgeons locate and avoid blood vessels during dissection, reducing the risk of bleeding.
  • Penile tourniquet: A temporary tourniquet may be used to control blood flow to the penis during specific parts of the surgery, providing a clearer surgical field.
  • Suture materials: Surgeons utilize various absorbable sutures of different sizes to secure tissues and achieve the desired curvature correction.
  • Grafts (if applicable): In some cases, where the curvature is caused by a shortage in the corpus cavernosum on the concave (bent) side, surgeons may use grafts harvested from other areas of the body, such as the fascia (connective tissue) on the dorsal penis, to augment the deficient area and achieve straightening.
  • Surgical microscope: For some particularly delicate procedures, a surgical microscope may be employed to magnify the surgical field, allowing for even greater precision.

The specific instruments used will vary depending on the chosen surgical technique and the patient’s individual anatomy. However, these specialized tools play a vital role in ensuring a successful outcome with minimal complications.

Steps of Procedure

It’s important to understand that the following is a general overview of the steps involved in ventral penile curvature repair surgery. The specific procedure will vary depending on the chosen surgical technique, the severity of the curvature, and the surgeon’s expertise. This information is not intended to replace a consultation with a qualified urologist.

General Steps:

  1. Anesthesia: General anesthesia is typically administered to ensure patient comfort and immobility throughout the surgery.
  2. Surgical Approach: The surgeon will create an incision, typically on the underside (ventral surface) of the penis, to access the underlying structures. In some cases, depending on the technique, a dorsal (upper side) approach may be chosen.
  3. Addressing the Curvature: The specific approach to correcting the curvature depends on the technique used. Here’s a breakdown of two common approaches:
    • Plication Techniques: These techniques focus on shortening the tunica albuginea on the convex (opposite side) of the curvature. This can be achieved through various methods, such as making small incisions or strategically placing sutures in the tunica albuginea to induce a bend in the opposite direction, ultimately straightening the penis.
    • Grafting Techniques: In cases where there’s a shortage in the corpus cavernosum on the concave (bent) side, surgeons may incorporate a graft. This graft, typically harvested from the fascia on the dorsal penis, is used to patch and lengthen the deficient area, allowing the penis to straighten.
  4. Maintaining Blood Supply and Sensation: Throughout the procedure, meticulous care is taken to preserve the dorsal neurovascular bundle, which supplies blood and nerves to the penis. Maintaining blood flow is crucial for erectile function, while preserving nerves ensures penile sensation.
  5. Skin Redraping: Once the curvature is addressed, the surgeon carefully redistributes and sutures the penile skin to achieve a natural, cosmetically pleasing appearance.
  6. Wound Closure: The surgical incision is closed with absorbable sutures.
  7. Dressings: Sterile dressings are applied to the surgical site.

Additional Considerations:

  • Drainage Tube: In some cases, a temporary drainage tube may be placed to remove any excess fluid that accumulates after surgery.
  • Erection Test: Following surgery, the surgeon may induce an artificial erection to assess the curvature correction and ensure satisfactory results.


Patients typically stay in the hospital for a short period following surgery. Recovery time varies depending on the procedure performed and individual healing rates. It’s crucial to follow post-operative instructions provided by the surgeon, which may include restrictions on activity, use of pain medication, and proper wound care.

Remember, this is a simplified overview. Consulting a qualified urologist is essential to understand the specific details and risks involved in ventral penile curvature repair surgery.


Ventral penile curvature repair surgery, like any surgery, carries potential complications. While uncommon, it’s important to be aware of these risks before undergoing the procedure. Here’s a breakdown of some possible complications:

  • Infection: As with any surgery, there’s a risk of infection at the incision site. This can be minimized with proper sterile technique during surgery and meticulous post-operative wound care.
  • Bleeding: Bleeding can occur during or after surgery. The use of meticulous surgical techniques and blood flow control measures help minimize this risk.
  • Urethral Injury: The urethra is a delicate structure, and damage during surgery can lead to complications like urinary leakage or difficulty urinating. Surgeons take great care to avoid the urethra throughout the procedure.
  • Loss of Erectile Function: In some cases, the surgery may inadvertently damage nerves or blood vessels that supply the penis, leading to erectile dysfunction (ED). Careful dissection techniques and preserving the neurovascular bundle are crucial to minimize this risk.
  • Recurrence of Curvature: There’s a possibility that the curvature may recur after surgery. This can be due to factors like scar tissue formation or inadequate correction during the initial surgery.
  • Shortening of the Penis: Depending on the surgical technique used, there’s a slight risk of the penis being shortened after surgery. Surgeons strive to minimize this risk by carefully measuring and planning the procedure.
  • Painful Erections: Scar tissue formation or nerve irritation can sometimes lead to painful erections after surgery. Medications or physical therapy may be helpful in managing this complication.
  • Sensation Changes: Reduced penile sensation is a potential complication, although usually temporary. Nerve preservation techniques are employed to minimize this risk.
  • Cosmetic Issues: While the goal is to achieve a natural appearance, there’s a possibility of developing irregularities in the penile skin or asymmetry after surgery.

It’s important to discuss these potential complications with your urologist before surgery. They can explain the risks in detail, considering your individual health and the specific surgical technique planned. By understanding the risks and benefits, you can make an informed decision about whether ventral penile curvature repair surgery is the right choice for you.

Key Points

  • Surgery is an option for significant curvature causing functional or psychological problems. Mild curvatures are often managed conservatively.
  • Detailed anatomy understanding is crucial. Surgeons consider the corpus cavernosa, tunica albuginea, urethra, neurovascular bundle, and penile skin during surgery.
  • Patient positioning and special instruments are used for precision and safety. Supine position with legs spread is common. Microsurgical instruments, doppler ultrasound, and various suture materials are employed.
  • Two main surgical approaches exist:
    • Plication techniques: Shorten the tunica albuginea on the convex side to induce straightening.
    • Grafting techniques: Use grafts (often from dorsal penile fascia) to lengthen the deficient corpus cavernosum on the concave side.
  • Maintaining blood flow and sensation is paramount. The dorsal neurovascular bundle is meticulously preserved.
  • Recovery involves following post-operative instructions for optimal healing.
  • Potential complications exist: Infection, bleeding, urethral injury, ED, curvature recurrence, penile shortening, painful erections, sensation changes, and cosmetic concerns. Discuss these risks with your urologist before surgery.

This surgery can be a viable option for men seeking correction of ventral penile curvature, but careful consideration of the risks and benefits is essential before making a decision. Consulting a qualified urologist is crucial to determine the best course of treatment for each individual case.

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Last Update: 31 March 2024