Ever heard of blue balls? This catchy term, also known medically as epididymal hypertension, describes a temporary testicular discomfort that can occur after sexual arousal without orgasm. While the name might raise an eyebrow (or two), there’s no need to panic. Blue balls are not a serious medical condition. However, the ache or pressure in the testicles can certainly be unpleasant.

This article dives into the science behind blue balls, exploring why they happen and clearing up some common misconceptions. We’ll also provide tips for managing the discomfort and discuss when it’s important to seek medical attention for testicular pain. So, whether you’ve experienced blue balls yourself or are simply curious, keep reading to learn more about this temporary testicular discomfort.

What Are Blue Balls?

Blue balls, a slang term for epididymal hypertension, occur when sexual arousal doesn’t culminate in orgasm or ejaculation. To understand why this happens, let’s explore the typical sequence of events during ejaculation.

During sexual arousal, blood flow to the penis increases dramatically. This engorges the corpora cavernosa, the spongy tissue responsible for erection, and traps blood within the penis, causing it to become firm. Meanwhile, the veins that normally drain blood from the penis constrict, further contributing to the erection.

As sexual stimulation continues, signals travel up the spine to the nervous system, triggering a series of events. The vas deferens, the tube that stores sperm and carries it from the testicles, contracts. This pushes sperm towards the base of the penis. Simultaneously, the prostate gland and seminal vesicles secrete fluids that mix with the sperm to form semen.

Finally, the muscles at the base of the penis contract rhythmically, forcefully expelling semen through the urethra in a process known as ejaculation.

The Discomfort of Blue Balls

Now, if this process is interrupted before ejaculation – for example, during masturbation that stops before orgasm or during intercourse that’s cut short – it can lead to blue balls. This happens because:

  • Blood Congestion: Blood that has already flowed into the penis and testicles remains trapped due to the lack of ejaculation.
  • No Release Mechanism: Without orgasm, there’s no mechanism to release the built-up blood.

Important to Note: Contrary to the misconception, the testicles don’t actually turn blue. The term is likely a figurative expression for the discomfort experienced.

This congestion in the testicles is what causes the aching or pressure sensation associated with blue balls. The good news is that blue balls are a temporary discomfort and typically resolve on their own within a few hours.

Debunking 10 Myths Around Blue Balls

The term “blue balls” has become a widespread yet inaccurate way to describe the discomfort some men experience after sexual arousal without orgasm. While the sensation is real, there’s a lot of misinformation surrounding it. Let’s debunk 10 common myths about blue balls (also medically known as epididymal hypertension).

Myth #1: Blue Balls Cause Permanent Damage

Fact: Epididymal hypertension is a temporary congestion of blood in the testicles. It doesn’t cause any long-term damage or health risks. The discomfort usually resolves on its own within a few hours.

Myth #2: The Testicles Literally Turn Blue

Fact: The name “blue balls” is quite misleading. The testicles themselves don’t change color. The discomfort might radiate to the surrounding areas, but there’s no visual change in the testicles.

Myth #3: Blue Balls Signal a Serious Medical Condition

Fact: While unpleasant, blue balls aren’t a sign of a serious medical condition. However, if you experience severe or persistent pain, swelling, redness, fever, or burning urination alongside testicular discomfort, see a doctor to rule out other potential issues.

Myth #4: Only Masturbation Leads to Blue Balls

Fact: Blue balls can occur after any situation that involves prolonged sexual arousal without orgasm, including interrupted intercourse or foreplay that doesn’t culminate in orgasm.

Myth #5: There’s No Escape from the Discomfort

Fact: While blue balls typically resolve on their own, there are ways to manage the discomfort:

  • Ejaculation: This is the most direct solution, allowing the built-up blood to release.
  • Warm Bath: A warm bath can help relax muscles and improve blood flow, potentially easing the ache.
  • Rest: Relaxing and avoiding further sexual stimulation allows your body to return to its normal state.
  • Over-the-counter pain relievers: Pain relievers like ibuprofen or acetaminophen might provide temporary relief.

Myth #6: Blue Balls Cause Infertility

Fact: There’s no evidence to suggest blue balls have any impact on fertility. Sperm production and storage occur in the testicles, and the temporary congestion doesn’t affect sperm health or count.

Myth #7: Frequent Blue Balls are Bad for Your Health

Fact: Occasional blue balls are nothing to worry about. However, if you experience them frequently and find them disruptive to your sex life, consult a doctor to explore any underlying causes.

Myth #8: Abstinence Can Cause Blue Balls

Fact: Abstinence from sexual activity doesn’t cause blue balls. Arousal without orgasm is the key factor.

Myth #9: Blue Balls Are a Sign of Weakness

Fact: Blue balls are a normal physiological response. They don’t reflect your masculinity or sexual prowess in any way.

Myth #10: Ignoring Blue Balls Makes Them Worse

Fact: Ignoring the discomfort likely won’t worsen the condition. The body will naturally reabsorb the blood congestion over time. However, if the discomfort is bothersome, you can try the relief methods mentioned earlier.

What causes blue balls?

Here’s a breakdown of the key factors that contribute to blue balls:

The Arousal Response:

During sexual arousal, the body undergoes several physiological changes to prepare for intercourse. These include:

  • Increased Blood Flow: Blood flow to the penis and testicles increases significantly, causing the penis to become erect and the testicles to elevate.
  • Sperm Transport: The epididymis, the tubes that store sperm behind the testicles, contracts to help transport sperm towards the vas deferens in preparation for ejaculation.

The Missing Piece: Orgasm and Ejaculation

When orgasm and ejaculation occur, the built-up blood in the penis and testicles is released, resolving the state of arousal. However, if orgasm or ejaculation doesn’t happen:

  • Blood Congestion: The blood flow continues to the penis and testicles, but without release.
  • Epididymal Pressure: The epididymis, already contracted for sperm transport, can become congested with blood, leading to pressure and discomfort.

Common Scenarios Leading to Blue Balls:

Several situations can trigger blue balls:

  • Stopping Self-Stimulation: Interrupting masturbation before orgasm can cause blood congestion in the penis and testicles.
  • Foreplay Without Climax: Engaging in extended foreplay without reaching climax can lead to the same physiological response.
  • Interrupted Intercourse: Sexual intercourse that is interrupted before ejaculation can also cause blue balls.
  • Certain Medications: Some medications, like antidepressants or SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), can affect sexual function and potentially contribute to blue balls by delaying orgasm.

Understanding the Cause: The Takeaway

By understanding the physiological changes during arousal and the role of orgasm in releasing blood congestion, you can gain a clearer picture of what causes blue balls. This knowledge can also help you navigate situations that might lead to this discomfort.

Other Causes of Testicular Pain

Here’s a breakdown of some other conditions that can manifest as testicular pain:

Inflammatory Conditions:

  • Orchitis: This is an inflammation of the testicles, often caused by a bacterial or viral infection, such as mumps or sexually transmitted infections (STIs) like chlamydia or gonorrhea. Symptoms can include pain, swelling, redness, and fever.
  • Epididymitis: Inflammation of the epididymis, the tubes that store sperm behind the testicles. It can occur alongside orchitis as a combined infection (epididymo-orchitis) or on its own. Symptoms can include pain, swelling, tenderness, and sometimes burning during urination.

Testicular Trauma:

  • Direct blow: A direct blow to the testicles during sports, accidents, or physical altercations can cause pain, swelling, and bruising. In severe cases, there might be bleeding within the scrotum.
  • Testicular Torsion: This is a medical emergency where the spermatic cord, which supplies blood to the testicles, twists, cutting off blood flow. It causes sudden and severe testicular pain, swelling, nausea, and vomiting. Immediate medical attention is crucial to save the affected testicle.

Other Potential Causes:

  • Inguinal Hernia: When tissues or organs push through a weak spot in the abdominal wall near the groin, it can cause pain that radiates to the testicles.
  • Varicocele: This is an enlargement of the veins in the scrotum, which can cause a dull ache or heaviness in the testicles. It’s usually not serious but might require treatment if it causes discomfort.
  • Kidney Stones: While not originating in the testicles, pain from kidney stones can sometimes radiate to the groin and testicles. This pain might be accompanied by blood in the urine, nausea, and vomiting.
  • Testicular Cancer: Testicular cancer is relatively rare, but one of the most common symptoms is a painless lump in the testicle. However, testicular cancer can sometimes cause pain as well. It’s crucial to see a doctor if you notice any lumps or changes in the testicles.

The Importance of Consulting a Doctor:

If you experience any testicular pain, especially if it’s severe, persistent, or accompanied by other concerning symptoms like swelling, redness, fever, or burning urination, it’s crucial to see a doctor to determine the underlying cause and receive appropriate treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for most testicular conditions.

What Are the Signs That You Have Blue Balls?

While blue balls, or epididymal hypertension, can affect both men and women due to failed or delayed ejaculation, the symptoms can differ slightly. Here’s what to watch out for:

  • Men:
    • Heaviness, aching, or general discomfort in the testicles.
    • Mild testicular pain.
    • Discomfort at the base of the penis.
  • Women:
    • Discomfort in the vulva or clitoris.

These symptoms are caused by reduced blood circulation in the genitals due to prolonged arousal without release. The pain and aches arise from the prolonged expansion of the genital muscles without relaxation.

Important Distinction: Blue Balls vs. Serious Conditions

It’s crucial to distinguish blue balls from other conditions that might cause similar discomfort. Here are some signs that warrant a doctor’s visit:

  • Severe or Persistent Pain: If the pain is intense, unrelenting, or worsens over time, seek medical attention.
  • Swelling or Redness: Noticeable swelling or redness in the testicles or vulva alongside pain could indicate infection or inflammation.
  • Fever: A fever accompanying genital pain can point towards an infection.
  • Burning During Urination: This could be a sign of a urinary tract infection (UTI) in both men and women.

Risk Factors for Blue Balls

While anyone experiencing prolonged sexual arousal without orgasm can get blue balls, certain factors might increase the likelihood:

  • Frequent sexual arousal without orgasm: This is the most obvious risk factor. The more frequently someone experiences arousal without release, the higher the chances of developing discomfort associated with blue balls.
  • Certain medications: Some medications, like antidepressants or blood pressure medications, can affect ejaculation. This can make it more difficult to achieve orgasm during sex, potentially leading to blue balls.
  • Psychological factors: Anxiety or performance pressure during sex can make it harder to orgasm, increasing the risk of blue balls.

Important Note: If you’re experiencing frequent difficulty achieving orgasm or suspect a medication might be contributing to blue balls, it’s crucial to consult a doctor. They can help identify the underlying cause and recommend appropriate solutions.

Blue Balls Treatment:

Any activity that may cause the excess blood buildup in the testicles can relieve blue balls. Remember, blue testicles caused by sexual activity or arousal are not dangerous. It does not  pose any harmful effects normally. Therefore you should not be worried if you experience it. There’s a simple solution for this problem: have an orgasm and ejaculate. 

In addition to ejaculation, there exist remedies that are effective in relieving your blue testicles.

  • Ejaculation As this condition results from sexual stimulation without completion, you can always complete the process by ejaculation. You can achieve this by having sex with your consenting partner or by bringing yourself to completion through masturbation. Masturbation is a quick fix, especially at home or when your partner is not accessible.
  • Cold showers Taking a cold shower reduces sexual arousal by decreasing circulation into your male genitals, as the body directs the blood to other priority functions like restoring your body temperature to normal. The cold water may also reduce swelling; apply the treatment to the testicles for a more abrupt and spontaneous effect.
  • Distractions Sexual encounters are as much physical as they are psychological. Taking your mind off sexual thoughts by participating in a non-arousing activity bypasses the brain response to initiate the process of ejaculation. This causes your body to relax and restores normal circulation.
  • Exercising Light exercises, such as going for a walk or jogging, a light cardio session, or a few push-ups, until you are no longer aroused may play a huge role in making your erection subside. Your muscles require circulation, and the more active you are, the more your body prioritizes that task at hand more than the need to ejaculate.
  • Laying on the ground to restore the blood flow to normal and out of the genitals.
  • Heavy lifting Like exercising, heavy lifting means using more muscular power, which translates to the body prioritizing the need for more power to list than erections. Also, the exercises act as distractions that help in combating the psychological effects of epididymal hypertension.
  • Warm massage to the afflicted area reduces inflammation and reduces the muscular tensions at the base of the penis.
  • Over the counter (OTC) medication Drugs such as painkillers and anti-inflammatories may help reduce the pain caused by blue testicles and testicular torsion. Caution should be when using these medicines to reduce the dependency on OTC drugs. Seek medical care first from a professional doctor or a specialist urologist.

Although there’s no medical consensus on this condition, blue balls are real. They occur as a result of blood constriction in the penis after a sexual encounter/arousal. 

Ejaculation is the best remedy to combat this condition. It causes the blood to return to normal flow after orgasm. This phenomenon is known as blue vulva in women or vasocongestion. You can rectify epididymal hypertension through other means apart from ejaculation.

Take cold showers, engage in heavy lifting and exercises, and distract yourself from sexual thoughts. Over-the-counter drugs, i.e., painkillers, anti-inflammatories, etc., can help manage the associated pain. Consult a medical doctor if you experience prolonged blue testicles or when the remedies here are not working. It may turn out to be another ailment than blue balls.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are blue balls?

When you are sexually aroused and have not ejaculated or reached orgasm after prolonged arousal, the constriction in the groin area  makes the scrotum turn darkish. This may also cause mild testicular pain or discomfort.

Do testicles turn the color blue?

Not exactly. As the phrase may suggest, your testicles may turn a faint blue tint, but not entirely blue. This shade is possible by constricted blood vessels in your genitals.

How long do blue balls last?

Blue balls, when not attended, typically disappear within a short time, usually a maximum of an hour.

How can one treat blue balls?

This condition is treatable even at home alone. Some of the symptoms are a pain in the groin, a faint bluish tint in the scrotum, and painful testicles. The most efficient remedy is ejaculation; you can achieve this either through sex with your consensual partner or masturbation. You should note the blue ball’s effect goes away after ejaculation.


In short, blue balls, or epididymal hypertension, is a temporary discomfort in the genitals caused by sexual arousal without orgasm. While it may cause achiness and uneasiness, it’s not a serious medical condition. Ejaculation is the most effective way to relieve blue balls, but other methods like cold showers or light exercise can also help. If the pain persists or worsens, consulting a doctor is recommended.

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Sexual Health,

Last Update: 9 April 2024